California State University Japanese American Digitization Citation Guide

This guide contains some examples of common citation formats in MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style. This guide is meant only as a starting point and is, by no means, inclusive.

Reference List Guide for American Psychological Association (APA) Style, 6th Edition This guide demonstrates citation elements and structures for APA Style reference lists only. It is intended to provide citation suggestions for the most common types of documents in the Japanese American History Digitization Project database. For a comprehensive treatment of the APA Style, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

APA
General Instructions:

  • Replace element labels (in bold/strong) with the corresponding element values found in the document description and/or within the electronic document.
  • Follow existing punctuation, capitalization and italics. Leave un-bolded text as written.
  • If no value exists for a listed citation element (e.g. Title, Author etc.) skip that element.
  • APA uses first and (if applicable) middle initials, represented in this guide as "A. A."
  • If listed author is an organization, then list the name of the organization in place of the personal name.
  • Dates are in parentheses.
  • Only first word of an article title and subtitle (if applicable) is capitalized.
  • Write out months without abbreviations.
  • Use "n.p." for no publisher and "n.d." for no date. For other missing elements, see APA Style Guide, 6th Ed.
  • "p." or "pp." precedes page numbers for newspaper articles, for example: "pp.11-12, 31".
  • Use brackets "[ ]" to enclose cited information that is not present in the document, but otherwise known or inferred. For example, the author's name does not appear on the document, but is likely to be "[Smith, A. A.?]" or creation date is estimated to be "[ca. 1943]".
  • URL (web address) for the website or database document is optional, but is included in the examples below. Persistent URLs (web addresses) can be copied by clicking the "Reference URL" button above and to the left of the document viewer or media player. Since no DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are assigned, the "Reference URL" will serve the same function.

Placeholder Legend:

  • A. A. = First and middle name initials
  • p. OR pp. = page number OR multiple page number prefixes
  • ## = number assigned to pages OR an illustration, map, table etc.
  • URL = Uniform Resource Locator (web address)

Citing the Japanese American History Digitization Project website and database

For APA style, no reference list entry is required for citing a website if the URL is cited in the text in parenthesis, for example.: (http://csujad.com/)
(See Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., section 6.32, pp. 189 - 192; Chapter 7, Examples 29, 30, 54, 55, and 76, pp. 198 - 215)

Published Documents

Newspaper Article:

Author last name, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. ##. Retrieved from URL

Magazine Article:

Author Last name, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume(issue), pages/page range without "p." or "pp." unless volume/issue is unknown.
Retrieved from URL

Government Document:

Name of Agency. (Year of publication). Title of work. City of publication, Two-letter postal code for state or district: Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Map:

If known cartographer:

Cartographer Last name, A. A. or organization (Cartographer). (Year of publication). Title. Title of publication (if applicable). Retrieved from URL

If no known cartographer:

Title. (Year of publication). Title of publication (if applicable). Retrieved from URL

Cartoon, Comic Strip:

Cartoonist Last name, A. A. (Cartoonist). (Year, Month Day). Title. Title of Publication. Retrieved from URL

Unique, Unpublished or Limited Publications from Archival Collections

NOTE: Digital objects of the CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project are derived from archival collections within participating campuses of the CSU. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition is not explicit regarding how to cite online surrogates derived from physical archival documents. However, due to restricted distribution, unique, unpublished or limited publications (listed below) are interpreted in the spirit of section 7.10 Archival Documents and Collections. These are modified to refer to the location of the surrogates rather than the archival collections and repositories of the original documents. This is in keeping with the flexibility indicated in section 7.10, paragraphs two through four.

Brochure, Pamphlet:

Name of Organization or Author. (Year of publication). Title of work. [Brochure]. City, Two-letter postal code for state: Name of Publisher. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. California State University Libraries.
Retrieved from URL

Assembly Center/Camp Newspaper or clipping:

Author last name, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. [Newspaper]. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. California State University Libraries. Retrieved from URL

Lecture, Speech:

Author Last name, A. A. (Year, Month Day delivered). Title. [Speech] City of delivery, Two-letter postal code for state. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. California State University Libraries. Retrieved from URL

Unpublished Manuscript/Typescript:

Author Last name, First name. (Year, Month Day of composition). Title. [Manuscript]. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. California State University Libraries. Retrieved from URL

Correspondence:

Author Last name, First name. (Year, Month Day created). [Letter to First name Last name]. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. California State University Libraries. Retrieved from URL

Photographs:

Photographer last name, first name. (Day Month Year). [Photograph]. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. California State University Libraries. Retrieved from URL

Oral History Interviews:

Interviewee last name, first name. (Year, Month Day of interview). [Oral History Interview conducted by First name Last name CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. California State University Libraries. Retrieved from URL

MLA
Works Cited Guide for the Modern Language Association (MLA) Style, 7th Edition

This guide demonstrates citation elements and structures for the creation of MLA Style works cited lists. It is intended to provide citation suggestions for the most common types of documents in the CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project database. For a comprehensive treatment of the MLA style, please consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition.

General Instructions:

  • Replace element labels (in bold/strong) with the corresponding element values found in the document description and within the electronic document.
  • Follow existing punctuation and italics.
  • Leave un-bolded text as written.
  • If no value exists for a listed citation element (e.g. Title, Author etc.) then skip that element.
  • If listed author is an organization, then list the name of the organization in place of the personal name.
  • Abbreviate all months using three-letter abbreviations unless the month uses 4 or fewer letters such as May, June and July.
  • Use "n.p." for no publisher and "n.d." for no date.
  • URL (web address) is optional
  • Persistent URLs (web addresses) can be copied by clicking the "Reference URL" button above and to the left of the document viewer or media player.

Placeholder Legend:

  • "p." OR "pp" = page number OR page numbers
  • ## = number assigned to pages or an illustration, map, table, section, etc.
  • URL = Uniform Resource Locator (web address)

Citing the Japanese American History Digitization Project website
Japanese American History Digitization Project. California State University Libraries. Web. Day Month Year of access. < http://www.csujad.com/>.

See MLA Handbook, 7th ed., section 5.6.1 - Web Publication

A Work on the Web Cited with Print Publication Data
(See MLA Handbook, 7th ed., section 5.6.2c)

Newspaper (5.4.5)
Author Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Newspaper Title City, State abbreviated. Day Month Year of publication: Ed., sec. ##: pp. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

* Ed. = Edition; sec. ## = section number. If pagination and section are in sync, combine section letter and page number (e.g. A5)

* If article starts and ends on different pages, use "pp+" or "Sec/pp+" (e.g. "11+" or "C11+")

Magazine article (5.4.6)
Author Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Magazine Title Day Month Year: pp-pp. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access.<URL>.

Brochure, pamphlet (5.5.19)
Name of organization or sponsor of the work. Title. City: Publisher. Date of publication. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

U.S. Government Document (5.5.20)
Country, State or Municipality. Name of Agency. Title. By Author First name, Last name. City of publication: Publisher, Year published. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

* Replace "By" with "Ed." or "Comp." for editor or compiler as necessary

Map (5.7.8)
Title. Map. City of publication: publisher, date.
CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

Cartoon, Comic Strip (5.7.9)
Cartoonist Last name, First name. "Title".
Cartoon. Name of Publication. Day Month Year of publication: pp. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

*Replace "Cartoon" with "Comic strip" as necessary

Lecture, Speech (5.7.11)
Author Last name, First name. "Title." Event name. Name of organization sponsor of event if any. Institution, City, State abbreviated
. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

Manuscript/Typescript (5.7.12)
Author Last name, First name. Title. Day Month Year of composition.
MS. Contributing Institution, City, State abbreviated. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

* for unknown works use quotation marks in place of italics
* Replace "MS" for manuscript with "TS" for typescript as necessary

Unpublished Correspondence (5.7.13)
Author Last name, First name. "
Letter to First name Last name." Day Month Year of composition. MS. Archival collection name. Institution, City, State abbreviated. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

A Work on the Web Cited with Publication Data for another Medium besides Print
(See MLA Handbook, 7th ed., section 5.6.2d)

Photograph (5.7.6)
Photographer last name, first name. Title. Day Month Year.
Photograph. Contributing Institution, City, State abbreviated. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

Oral History Interview (5.7.7)
Interviewee last name, first name.
Oral History Interview. Day Month Year of interview. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. Web. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

Reference Guide for Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition
This guide demonstrates citation elements and structures for the foot/endnotes and the bibliography reference formats used in Chicago Style. It is intended to provide citation suggestions for the most common types of documents in the CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project database. For a comprehensive treatment of the Chicago Style, please consult the Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition.


General Instructions:

  • Replace element labels (in bold/strong) with the corresponding element values found in the description below the document, and/or within the electronic document.
  • Follow existing punctuation, capitalization, quotation marks and italics. Leave un-bolded text as written, except "n." which is the placeholder for the note number.
  • If no value exists for a listed citation element (e.g. Title, Author etc.) skip that element.
  • If listed author is an organization, then list the name of the organization in place of the personal name.
  • Spell months without abbreviations (e.g. January).
  • If no date, use "n.d."
  • Persistent URLs (web addresses) can be copied by clicking the "Reference URL" button above and to the left of the document viewer or media player.
  • Add access dates (i.e. "Accessed Month Day, Year") prior to the URL for the website or documents that do not contain a date.
  • Unpublished works and limited publications may be omitted from the bibliography (i.e. optional) unless critical or cited frequently. However, a full citation is recommended in the notes.
  • For a comprehensive treatment of Chicago Style, see Chicago Manual of Style Guide for special citation considerations such as anonymous or multiple authors etc.

Placeholder Legend

  • n. = Note Number
  • pp. = page number
  • ## = number assigned to an illustration, map, table etc.
  • URL = Uniform Resource Locator (web address)

Citing the CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project website:
Notes format:
n. "Japanese American History Digitization Project," CSU Libraries, accessed Month Day, Year, http://www.csujad.com/.

Bibliography format:
Japanese American History Digitization Project." CSU Libraries. Accessed Month Day, Year. http://www.csujad.com/.

Previously Published Works

Pamphlets, Booklets, Reports (CMoS 14.249)
Notes:
n. Author's First name Last name, Title, (City of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pp. URL.

Bibliography (optional):
Author's Last name, First name. Title. City of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. URL.

Illustrations, Maps, Tables (CMoS 14.165)
Notes:
n. Author's First name Last name, Title, (City of publication: Publisher, Year), pp, Medium ##, URL.

Bibliography:
Author's Last name, First name. Title. City of publication: Publisher, Year. pp. Medium ##. URL.
*for "Medium" insert "Map," "Fig.," "Table," or "Illustration," etc., follow by the number assigned to the medium (if any)

Magazine article (CMoS 14.199)
Notes:
n. Author First name Last name, "Title of Article," Magazine Title, Month Day, Year, pp, URL.

Bibliography:
Author Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Magazine Title. Month Day,Year. pp-pp. URL.

Newspaper article (CMoS 14.203)
Notes: n. Author First name Last name, "Title," Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year, URL.

Bibliography:
Author Last name, First name. "Title." Newspaper Title. Month Day, Year. URL.

Previously Unpublished Works

U.S. Government Documents (CMoS 14.304)
Notes:
n. U.S. Department or Committee, "Title," by author/compiler first name last name, Month Day, Year, URL.

Bibliography (optional):
U.S. Department or Committee. "Title." by author/compiler first name last name. Month Day, Year. URL.

Private Contracts (CMoS 14.231)
n. Author First name Last name, Title or Medium, Name of agent if any, signees if any, Month day, Year, URL.

* generally not cited in bibliography format. For "Medium" insert type of document, e.g. Lease, Deed etc.

Correspondence, Memoranda (CMoS 14.218)
n. Author first name last name, letter to recipient name, Month Day, Year. URL.

* generally not cited in the bibliography format.

Lectures/Speeches/Papers (CMoS 14.226)
Notes:
n. Author First name Last name, "Title," (Medium, Event, Name of event sponsor, City, Month Day, Year), URL.

Bibliography (optional):
Author Last name, First name. "Title." Medium. Event. Name of event sponsor. City. Month Day, Year. URL.

* For "Medium" insert type of document, e.g. Lecture, Speech etc.

Oral History Audio Recordings/Transcripts (CMoS 14.219)
Notes:
n. Subject first name last name, interview by First name Last name, Location, Month Day, Year, Medium, CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project, CSU Libraries, URL.

Bibliography (optional):
Subject Last Name, First Name. Interview by First Name Last Name. Location. Month Day, Year. Medium. CSU Japanese American History Digitization Project. CSU Libraries. URL.

* For "Medium" enter "mp3" or "transcript"

Manuscripts (CMoS 14.225)
Notes:
n. Author First name Last name, "Title," (unpublished manuscript, Month Day, Year), URL.

Bibliography (optional):
Author Last name, First name. "Title." (unpublished manuscript, Month Day, Year), URL.

Photographs (CMoS 14.274, 14.278)
Notes:
n. Photographer First name Last name, "Title," Month Day Year created, photograph, URL.

Bibliography (optional):
Photographer Last name, First name (photographer). "Title." Month Day Year created. URL.